Toxic heavy metals, dioxins and radioactive wastes are being recycled as fertilizer and spread over fields nationwide, and there is no law requiring that they be listed as ingredients. Some large industries were saving millions in hazardous-waste disposal costs through the fertilizer loophole. In most cases, there was no science to say this practice is safe. The small number of scientists who knew about the practice said it was marked by uncertainty, unpredictability and unknowns. The EPA and state regulators, lobbied by industry, encouraged the practice in the name of recycling. But the regulators only test fertilizers for guaranteed nutrients. The toxic metals and dioxins were not listed on labels.