The book describes the genetic basis of human race in the light of new information from the human genome project. It then asks whether genetics may help explain some long term features of human history. The book concludes that there is a biological basis to race (contrary to claims that race is just a social construct). It finds that races do not differ in their genes, or even in their alleles (the alternative forms of a gene) but only in the subtle quality of relative allele frequency. As to the second topic, the book explores the possibility that, although people as individuals are much the same the world over, races may differ slightly in their social behavior, and hence in social institutions based on that behavior, a difference that may explain salient features in history and in today's world.