Journalists who work in authoritarian environments tend to be under electronic surveillance. Surveillance is being frequently conducted at a mass scale and is intended to track what journalists in general are doing and what stories they are investigating.
In some cases, surveillance has a specific target — electronic espionage intended to track the actions of a specific reporter and sources.
The key question is as follows: if a journalist wants to combat electronic surveillance, how are you supposed to recognize when it’s happening?
Here is how Jorge Luis Sierra would advise journalists who think that surveillance is a potential or actual threat to their privacy, personal safety, data security, and the identities of their sources: